The 10 invention that revolutionized the passing of time1 - X-ray machine
a history of X-ray experiments begins with the British scientist William Crookes, who investigated in the nineteenth century the effects of certain gases to energy shocks. These experiments were carried out in an empty tube, and electrodes to generate high voltage currents. He called Crookes tube. Well, this tube being near photographic plates, generated in the same few blurry images. Despite the discovery, Crookes did not continue investigating this effect.
Nikola Tesla is how, in 1887, he began to study this effect created through Crookes tubes. One of the implications of their research was to warn the scientific community the danger to biological organisms caused by exposure to this radiation.
2 - Penicillin
Although generally attributed to Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin, many times and different cultures came through observation and experience to know and use the bactericidal properties of molds. Precedents have been discovered in ancient Greece and India, and Ceylon in the armies of the second century. He has also been present in traditional cultures as different and distant regions such as Serbia, Russia or China, as well as native Norteamérica.5 6 flowered food is used to apply soil or soil containing fungi to the wounds of war. From the eighth century at least, Arab doctors smearing infections healed wounds with a white paste that formed in leather harnesses to load saddled donkeys. Throughout the seventeenth century some British pharmacologists and herbalists such as John Parkington, fungal treatment included in the pharmacy records
3 - DNA double helix
The DNA was first isolated it in the winter of 1869, the Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher while working at the University of Tuebingen. Miescher was conducting experiments on the chemical composition of discarded surgical bandages pus when he noticed a precipitate of an unknown substance that chemically characterized more tarde.1 2 He called nuclein, because he had extracted from cores celulares.3 took almost 70 years of research to identify the components and structure of nucleic acids.
Phoebus Levene in 1919 identified that a nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and a fosfato.4 Levene suggested that DNA was a solenoid-shaped structure (pier) with nucleotide units linked by phosphate groups. In 1930, Levene and his master Albrecht Kossel proved that Miescher's nuclein is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consisting of four nitrogenous bases (cytosine (C), thymine (T), adenine (A) and guanine (G)), sugar deoxyribose and a phosphate group, and in its basic structure, the nucleotide comprises a sugar attached to the base and fosfato.5 However, Levene thought the chain was short and the bases repeated in a fixed order . In 1937 William Astbury produced the first pattern of X-ray diffraction which showed that DNA had a regular structure.
4 - the Apollo capsule 10
Tenth flight of the Apollo program (officially referred to as AS-505), was launched on May 18, 1969 by Thomas P. Stafford-Major, John W. Young and Eugene A. Cernan aboard.
This mission was a combination of the two, since it was first placed the lunar module LM in a close orbit to the moon, and there made the necessary maneuvers that had already been done in orbit around the earth.
Stafford and Cernan were in the lunar module "Snoopy" after leaving the service command and CSM, and performing in an elliptical lunar orbit, which was located perilune about 10 miles above its surface.
During the second and final round to the moon lander lost control, recovered shortly after its pilot Cernan. After completing this maneuver left the lunar module, which was launched into orbit around the sun, and after boarding the command module "Charlie Brown" headed to Earth.
This mission marked the final test of the descent to the moon, besides performing many photographs of the landing zones in the 31 orbits that carried with it. Splashed on May 26 after 192 hours, 3 minutes and 23 seconds of flight.
5 - V2 Rocket
The experiments with liquid fuel rockets began in Germany in 1920 led by the Society for Space Flight "Verein für Raumschiffahrt" (or "VFR", whose members was the young Wernher von Braun (1912-1977).
Then in 1934, these original works are transformed into civilian official activities funded and controlled by the Wehrmacht under the direction of Captain, later General, Walter Dornberger, granting a research facility in Kummersdorf, Brandenburg. In 1937 the team moved to Peenemunde on the Baltic coast, with Dornberger and von Braun as chief technical director.
These scientists sought to increase the effectiveness of the missiles and weapons make them viable. For this purpose, a series of test vehicles powered by alcohol and liquid oxygen (which include "Aggregat Eins" or A1, A2 and A3), as well as extensive bench testing.
6 - Motor Stephenson
The rocket steam engine was the most advanced of its time. It was built for the Rainhill trials held by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1829 to choose the best design and most competent. It set the standard for one hundred fifty years of steam locomotive power. Although the rocket was not the first steam locomotive, his fame is that it was the first to bring together a number of innovations to produce the most advanced engine of its time, and the template for the steam locomotives since. In fact, the design of the standard steam locomotive is often called the "Stephensonian" locomotive.
Rocket used a multi-tubular boiler, which made for much more efficient and effective transfer of heat between the exhaust gases and water. The former locomotive boilers consisted of a single pipe surrounded by water. Rockets with 25 copper tubes running the length of the boiler to carry the hot exhaust gases from the combustion chamber. This was a significant development because it greatly increases the amount of steam produced, and later designs use a larger number of boiler tubes. Also used a rocket blastpipe, feeding exhaust steam from the cylinders at the base of the chimney in order to induce a partial vacuum and draw air through the fire. Credit for the invention of the blastpipe is disputed between Sir Goldsworthy Gurney and Timothy Hackworth. The blastpipe worked well in multi-tube boiler of rockets, but in previous designs with a single tube through the boiler creates suction as they tend to rip the top of the fire and throwing burning fireplace ashes, much increased fuel consumption
7 - Computer Pilot ACE
The Pilot ACE was one of the first computer built in the UK  at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the 1950's.
It was a preliminary version of the full ACE, which had been designed by Alan Turing. After Turing left NPL (in part because he was disappointed by the lack of progress in the construction of the ACE), James H. Wilkinson took over the project, Harry Huskey helped with the design. The Pilot ACE ran its first program on May 10, 1950 and shown to the press in December 1950.
Although originally intended as a prototype, it became apparent that the machine was a potentially very useful, especially given the lack of other computing devices at the moment. After some improvements to make practical operational use, which entered service in late 1951, and was in considerable operational service in the coming years. One of the reasons for the ACE was so useful is that it was able to perform floating point arithmetic called as useful for scientific computing. Wilkinson tells the story of how he came to be.  The Pilot ACE was built without hardware arithmetic, unlike other teams in that time, which were built with fixed-point hardware. The ACE began with fixed points implemented as software, but it soon became apparent that it was a bad idea because the numbers quickly become too large or too small to be contained in the computer. It only took one week to write new software for the ACE could do floating point arithmetic. After that, James H. Wilkinson 's wrote a book about rounding errors in floating point calculations, which became a best seller.
8 - Steam Engine
The steam engine was the start of the Industrial Revolution that drives today. In the steam engine underlying the First Industrial Revolution, from the late eighteenth century in England and until almost mid-nineteenth century, portentously accelerating the economic development of many major countries of Western Europe and the United States. Only at the interface that elapsed between 1890 and 1930 the steam driven coal gave way to other internal combustion engines: those driven by petroleum hydrocarbons.
There have been many authors who have attempted to determine the date of the invention of the steam engine, attributing it to one or another inventor who had been trying in vain, as the history of its development was full of names. From the collection of sophisticated machine Hero to Watt are many improvements in England and especially in the context of an incipient Industrial Revolution in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries led seamlessly from the first rudimentary devices without practical application to the invention of the universal motor that came to be implemented in all industries and used in transportation, displacing the traditional engines, like the beast of burden, the mill or the man's own strength. Jerome Ayanz and Beaumont, military, painter and musician cosmographer, but especially Spanish inventor recorded in 1606 the first patent for a modern steam engine, so you can attribute the invention of the steam engine. The fact that the knowledge of this patent is fairly recent that this data does not know what the vast majority of people.
9 - Model T Ford
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by low-cost Ford Motor Company Henry Ford from 1908 to 1927. With the same production line introduced, popularizing the purchase of automobiles.
Henry Ford and mass production: a car called the Ford T
Henry Ford sat many of the foundations for the future of the car when he decided to apply the theories of Taylor for the perfect combination of man and machine to the new four-wheel industry. The result is called the Ford Model T, the first automobile mass production.
"I will build a car for the people, the universal car," proclaimed Henry Ford in 1906. I had a goal fliantrópico. I was looking to increase their clients to the fullest. The first Ford cars dating from 1903, but the Ford T, appeared in 1908, was the model that brought them into the pioneer history of Detroit. Designed for a rural clientele, it was a very tall vehicle, allowing it to travel the roads of farms and cross-ditches in France was called the spider. The roads were very scarce in the vast fields of early twentieth-century America, still recovering from the Indian wars and attacks on the proceedings. Henry Ford, who was a great admirer of Thomas Edison-Ford Museum even bears his name, became an ardent supporter of the rationalization of work. His idea was to convert the worker into a robot. Adept in the theories of Taylor, introduced mass production and proliferation of the machines. Both subcontractors and their own colleagues considered him a tyrant, whose lack of technical expertise requirements sometimes resulted in somewhat absurdas.1
[Edit] In the assembly to his rise to fame
True assembly line was installed in 1913. Inspired by a rifle factory ('and slaughterhouses of Chicago! ", Was often based on improvisation. The T was built on these principles and also Henry Ford was ahead of its rivals soon established a large network of dealers. An affordable price and mass production for a period of almost 20 years made a revolutionary new model a symbol of the great series. Even the fledgling film industry took hold of him, and the T became star of unspeakable persecution in silent film comedies. We have seen even split in half by a saw passing in the middle of its two occupants: The Laurel and Hardy.
10 - Electric Telegraph
The telegraph is a telecommunication device for transmitting signals from a distance. The most widely used over the years has been the electric telegraph, but also optical telegraphs used different forms and functions.
When the sending station closes the switch, commonly called manipulator, a current from the battery power to the line and the electromagnet, which makes it attracted a metal finished in a punch press a strip of paper, which is moves by a pinch rollers, driven by clockwork, on a cylinder impregnated with ink, so that, depending on how long you press the switch will result in the printing of a dot or a line in the strip paper. The combination of dots and dashes on paper can be translated into alphanumeric characters by using a code agreed in the most common practice for many years has been the Morse code.
Further improvements and transmitters emitting devices have allowed the transmission of messages more quickly, without requiring a manipulative and manual code translation, as well as for simultaneous transmission over the same line. One such device is advanced telegraph ticker, whose initial model was a special typewriter as electrical signals transmitting keystrokes on a keyboard, while printing on roll paper or perforations made in a tape also made of paper. The more modern forms of this machine is manufactured with a monitor or screen instead of a printer. The system is still used by deaf and hearing impaired seriously in order to send text messages over the telephone network.
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